Displaying items by tag: service dog

Monday, 02 March 2020 21:07

Keeping Training a Service Dog Simple

Keeping Training a Service Dog Simple

Training your own service dog seems like a complicated long term and in depth process, and it is! Keeping the process simple is the key to being able to follow through! 
 
Here is an Overview:
 
Identify Qualities
you would like your dog to have.
 
Some Examples of Qualities:
A calm dog in many different environments
A dog that desires interaction with you or to be in close proximity with you.
A dog that is confident no matter where he is working.
A dog that is able to really relax in different environments.
A dog that is comfortable with strangers.
A dog that has body awareness.
 
Generalize Behaviours
Identify a few basic behaviours that are key to starting getting those qualities. Generalize those behaviours.
Identify what concepts your dog needs to know.
Generalize those concepts to different locations. 
Make the base behaviours a habit.
 
Some Examples of Behaviours:
A dog that looks at you.
A dog that can lay down on a mat near you.
A dog that can leave objects alone (not sniff, pick up or  or eat objects).
A dog that can nose target objects.
A dog that can step over a series of rungs without knocking them over.
 
Generalize Concepts
Identify a few basic concepts you would like your dog to generalize well.
 
Some Examples of Concepts:
A dog can do a variety of behaviours at a distance from the handler
A dog that can do a behaviour for a long period of time (duration).
A dog that moves at the same speed as the handler.
A dog that can nose target any indicated object anywhere.
A dog that is careful with where his body is in space no matter what situation he is in.
A dog that can be walked away from the handler by a stranger without a verbal cue or hand signal.
A dog that chooses to do an appropriate default behaviour when not specifically cued to do a behaviour in a specific environment (such as leave it for scents, food, other people, other dogs etc. 
 
Fear Periods 
Take into account that fear periods occur and when they might occur. 
If they erupt, take a few steps back and reinforce base behaviours in familiar places and move forward  in incrementally new locations.
 
Train the Dog in Front of You. 
This means assessing each training session where your dog is at and what he might be able to do in that moment. Do this in each session no matter if you have trained in that spot only once or a hundred times before. 
 
Keep your eye on the bigger goal and try not to get bogged down in the details. It you find you are getting mired in the mud, get an outside perspective. You may also need help to use creativity to problem solve. 

Contact SDTI to do a web cam consult with either Jenn Hauta or Donna Hill.
Published in Training Skills

Question:
When I take my adult dog out to the yard, and lead him around on a long line, he will sniff for a half hour before going potty. As my mobility decreases, I need him to potty sooner and of course, i don't want to stand out in the rain or snow either. How can I change this? 

Answer:
It sounds like he has learned to withhold his potty events until he's ready to go in. This is common when the outdoor time is not reliant on him pottying first. In other words, he needs to potty first and go sniff outside after after as the reward.

To change this, you will need to choose a new potty location in your yard. For example a 15 foot square defined area in your front yard rather than the back yard where he has been previous doing this behavior sniffing. (Changing the environment changes the behavior expectations). Don't worry this physical location change is only temporary until he understands the new way to do the behavior.

Starting first thing in the morning when you know he has to go pee, get dressed as if you are going for a walk, take him out on a leash (not a long line) and stand in the middle of the defined area and wait until he goes. Let him move and sniff around only in the defined area. It helps to anchor yourself on the spot. You can turn around on the spot but not step away.  A six foot leash actually give him about a 15 foot radius which is plenty of space to explore to potty.

As soon as you get out there, set your phone timer or watch for 5 minutes. If he does not go in 5 minutes, then bring him back in and confine him to a small area in the house (X-pen or crate for example). Take him out again in an hour and repeat. Repeat for as many times as it takes for him to go in that 5 minute period. When he does, wait until he's done, then mark and praise him and take him for a long sniffy walk - at least his 30 minutes. If you repeat this each time you take him out (at least 4 times each day for most dogs-after meals, after training, play or sleeping, and before bed), he will start to understand that he must go potty first, then the play and walk comes afterward.

Once he is reliably going potty right away in the new location (10 times in a row), then you can start to take him back towards the previous location where he was pottying. The same rules apply in all locations of your yard now, including the the old location once you get there. Take him out, if he doesn't go in 5 minutes, back in the house and try again in an hour in the same location. If he does go, he gets a walk or playtime afterward. Later you can phase this into a yard or in-house training session if he enjoys those. What comes after the potty must be rewarding for him. Over time, you can shorten the activity or only go for a walk once or twice a day. 

Since you are already out there with him, you can also add a cue to the potty and teach him to potty under "stimulus control" so later, you can cue him to go whenever and wherever you need him to.

While you train, make sure he is getting enough mental and physical stimulation each day. Do indoor training sessions, or ask a friend or hire a dog walker to supplement his walks 3 times a week. Good luck!

Published in Public Access

Smaller dogs have traditionally been used for hearing alerts. Recently, more people are choosing small dogs and toy breeds as their service dog for other disabilities. Owner-trainers are selecting them for diabetes, seizures, PTSD and Anxiety. The benefits are easy to observe but examining the concerns are also worthwhile to make sure dogs of the smaller size are actually a good fit for the handler, the family environment and their resources.

Benefits 
A dog's small size means they may:

  • be cheaper to feed
  • have less fur overall (but still have grooming requirements)
  • be easier to transport
  • be easier to tuck out of the way
  • may need less exercise than a larger dog (but not always true)

Concerns

  • have different health issues as a group than larger dogs
    patellar luxation (knee cap) 
    protruding eye balls (especially in short-nosed breeds)
    hypoglycemia (small size/fast metabolism means they have to eat more frequently to maintain normal blood sugar levels)
    tracheal collapse (means you will need to use a flat walking harness)
    Legg Calve Perthes (hip joint issue)
    chronic valvular disease  (heart disease)
  • may have higher incidence of cryptorchoidism (undescended testicles) than larger dogs
  • tooth and jaw issues are standard among small dogs (which also means more dental care, and smaller food which is more expensive)
  • may be harder to potty train as they can sneak through small holes to potty out of sight in the house or may not be able to hold their bladder as long as larger dogs
  • small dogs tend to be over-represented in puppy mills. Rescues/shelters take in many puppy mill dogs. These are dogs with unknown genetic, medical, and behavioral histories and do not make good service dog candidates. 
  • tiny dogs are not likely to be as effective in performing physical interruption type tasks
  • may not be able to retrieve/drag larger objects
  • may not be able to access higher locations/steps without help
  • terriers like Jack Russel and fox terriers may need more exercise than you think!
  • terrier breeds can be very persistent and predatory (including the tiny Yorkshire terriers)
  • do not adapt well to harsh environments -may get cold or hot quickly in harsh environments or on hard floors
  • shiver more often (draws attention to your dog, may need a coat in indoor environments)
  • vet bills cost the same for small dogs as medium dogs. Sometimes spaying/neutering and operations can cost more due to the skill/attention to detail needed for operating on smaller bodies. Dental surgery is expensive as it requires a specialist.
  • fragile structure-falling, jumping or being dropped from even low heights can break bones
  • may be too environmentally sensitive or over-reactive-smaller dogs have have a faster metabolism, their flicker fusion rate in the eyes of small dog are higher so they tend to see more motion than larger dogs, tend to move faster, be more fearful
  • may be more prone to alarm barking (unwanted as a service dog and you can be asked to leave if you cannot control your dog)
  • most small dogs do not tolerate or enjoy being handled by children 
  • not as easy to socialize with other dogs and animals due to size difference and predatory issues
  • may be injured if children are handling the dog (stay with medium and larger dogs with more solid structure and temperament if the dog is intended to be a child's assistance dog)
  • ears harder to clean due to size (make sure you have the dexterity to do so or can hire a groomer regularly)
  • may trigger predatory behavior in larger dogs you encounter in public
  • may get stepped on (and have to be carried more often as a result, you will need to bend over to pick up a small dog)
  • may not be taken seriously by retailers or accommodation providers (may be mistaken for "fake" service dogs (dubious about effectiveness of small size, unfamiliar with your breed as a service dog, etc)
  • may attract unwanted attention from public
  • you will be bending over for the lifetime of the dog (to reward behaviors, do hand targets-sue a stick, lift it over high barriers, keep him from harm etc)
  • you will be sitting or kneeling to train at times, or elevating the dog for training

Tips:

  • Avoid breeds that have been "bred down" from a larger standard
  • Avoid the toy breeds (dogs smaller than 15 lbs)
  • Choose lines that have a heavier (more sturdy) bone structure
  • Choose a breeder than breeds on the large size of the standard or get a mix with a slightly larger (also suitable) breed
  • Find out what health tests have been done on the dog
  • Find out about the genetic history of teeth of at least 3 generations back
  • Brush your dogs teeth daily and give him things to chew
  • Have regular dental check ups
  • feed adult dogs at least twice a day, carry extra food for long days
  • Watch for irregularities in gait, like a skip off one leg or the other now and then when running (patella)
  • Avoid putting your dog in a shopping cart, use a snuggle/huggie tyoe carrier instead if you must keep him off the floor
  • teach him to be confident on his own and where to tuck himself out of the way to avoid injury


Small Breeds to Consider

  • conformation line beagle (breed only for companionship for many generations) (avoid hunting lines as they are higher energy, high prey drive and nose -oriented)
  • conformation bichon frise
  • Moyen poodle
  • Miniature poodle (avoid toy sized)
  • and mixes with the above breeds in them


Carefully consider your disabilities, the tasks the dog will be performing for you, your lifestyle, exercise levels, personality and those living around you (family and caregivers and other members of your support team), costs and make sure that the individual dog you choose is right for you. 

 

Published in Choosing a Service Dog
Saturday, 21 December 2019 12:35

What is involved in Self-Training a Service Dog?

Here are 4 videos that give an overview of the realities and needs of self-training your own service dog. 

Part 1 The Need (3.43 min)

Part 2 Resources and Laws (5.21 min)

Part 3 The Dog (3.03 min)

Part 4 Training and Common Situations Handlers Deal with (5.25 min)



Please feel free to share this link with anyone you know who is thinking about Do it Yourself DIY training or just starting to train their own service dog or assistance dog! 

Thursday, 28 November 2019 08:20

Handling Errors in Service Dogs

Making errors can be very stressful for a dog, especially one working in public where the spotlight is on them. They don't deliberately try to make mistakes. Training is ongoing and you and your dog are always learning together, no matter how much experience you have together. 

The big question is what you do when your dog makes a mistake? How you deal with the situation can either build your relationship or create confusion and degrade what bond you have. 
Sure you have bad days and your dog does too! And he is allowed to have them! He's not a robot just like you aren't. 

If he has made the mistake twice in a row (no matter how big or small the mistake is), it's time to stop, take a break and take stock in what is going on for the dog.

Start with Asking Questions to Clarify the Situation

1. Does he truly know the behavior? Does he know exactly what is expected of him?
2. Do you see any signs of stress? Specific behaviors like avoidance behaviors are very high level indicators while nose tip licks and averting his eyes tend to be signs of lower levels of stress.
3. Does he understand the cue? Have you put in enough repetitions that it has become muscle memory and he just responds to the cue as a stimulus (think can opener and cat comes running).
4. Is what your body cuing to do and what your mouth is saying actually the same thing?
5. Have you given him time to acclimate to the environment? or did you rush right in and expect him to work? Just like when you go to a party and take a look around to get your bearings before choosing where to move in, your dog needs this time as well. He needs to feel comfortable in the environment so he can work.
6. Is there something in the environment telling him to do something other than what you are telling him to do?
7. Have you given him the foundation for length of time that he needs to be able to sustain the behavior in the new environment? If he can't do it at home, he's not likely to be able to do it away from home.
8. Have you trained with the specific distractions that he is concerned about or distracted by? What might be competing for his attention?
9. Are you trigger stacking him? In other words, are there are too many things going on that he is over his ability (threshold) to deal with and think about what he is doing?
10. Have you prepared him to do the distance that you are asking him to do?11. Did you skip some steps when training in the environment? This can result in a dog that is confused what behavior you want or how long you want it for. This might be called the "miracle method" where your dog is not succeeding in other environments and you decided to just take him anyway and see how he does. 
12. Can you control the immediate environment well enough that your dog can feel comfortable and focussed to work?

If you can honestly answer these questions and admit that you believe your dog has been properly prepared for both the behavior and the situation he finds himself in, here are some ideas of how to handle error.s 

How to Handle Errors: 

A. Cheerfully reset him the first time. "That's okay buddy, let's try it again!"
A reset might involve taking a small step to the side and re-cuing the behavior, followed with a mark and reward.
Or it might be taking him out of the environment and approaching it again. 

B. If he makes two errors in a row, you need to ask him for something a little easier so he can succeed.
Decrease the duration of the behavior, the distance from you or the target, or move away from a distraction.
Set him up to show you what he CAN do, rather than what he can't. 

C. If you suddenly realize that you've asked for too much, reward your dog for attempting the behavior.
If he refuses to lay down, for example, but will go part way down, mark and reward him on the way down!
You will know when he's made an effort if he does the behavior but maybe only part of it. That's a great start! 
You can use shaping the behavior on the spot to get more of the behavior!

D. If he makes an error again, stop the session, give the dog a break and ask yourself (or helpers, or watch the video if you've been recording) "Why isn't he succeeding? What do I need to change so he can succeed?"
You may need to abort the that specific behavior and come back to it later after he's acclimated to the environment. 

For the break, and while you are evaluating what is going on, take him somewhere to be a dog for 10 minutes or more, then come back and try again but train the behavior in an easier environment.
Work at the edge of the environment or at the back of the room to see if he can succeed there.  You can move further into the room if he is successful. 

E. Teach the behavior to a higher level in other more familiar environments. Make sure he can perform it to a higher level than he will ever need to perform it in real life. You can make it fun to add more duration, distance and distraction. Use an incremental approach to prepare him well. Be creative but be kind! Avoid surprising him. 
Do specific set ups with specific distractions to teach your dog that he can indeed ignore the distractions and perform the behavior no matter what is going on around your team.

If you think of your dog's mistakes as information to what you are asking him to do, rather than his failure, then it's just that, information. Use that information to change what you are doing to help him succeed. That is how you build his confidence, trust and grow as a team!
As a trainer/handler you need to always be on the alert to what your dog is feeling and adapt what you ask him to do to what he is capable on that day in that moment. You are a partnership and while he supports you, you also need to support him.

Good luck! 

if you need some support to come up with ways to break behaviors down into smaller steps, creative ways to over-prepare him for specific situations, and generally help your dog succeed in public, contact us!
We can help you plan beforehand and also deal with the situation in the moment, real time by phone or webcam.

Published in Public Access

When first starting out with your service dog candidate (whether puppy or "new to you" dog), it can be fun to teach new behaviors and tricks! Learning how to learn is an important part of a service dogs skills. You do need to be careful with your choice of the first  5 or 6 behaviors though, as choosing the wrong ones can add more work or even derail your training as your dog progresses.

Some of these behaviors can be used as alert behaviors later on so we want to be thoughtful how we teach them and what cue we pair them with. This means after YOU have some experience in training behaviors and have a better idea of what you are doing and your dogs' temperament is like.

All of these behaviors are likely to become default behaviors when your dog dog doesn't know what else to do, when you are shaping him or when he gets frustrated. Most of them are self-reinforcing, which means just doing them feels good, no reinforcement is needed from you so he will keep doing them even when you don't want them. They can also be hard to get rid of once they are established, even if you teach a cue for them and put them under stimulus control.

Wait until your pup or dog understands the concepts of a 'behavior on cue' and 'stimulus control' for at least 5 more basic (foundation) behaviors before you teach any of these.

  • spinning (this can become a obsessive compulsive behavior)
  • shake a paw (can interfere with a nose target since the cue is very similar, a lifted paw encourages others to interact with your service dog, can interfere with a dog's communication with you since you might misinterpret it)
  • jumping up or paws up even if on cue (especially with large dogs and the behavior an become an attention seeking behavior) 
  • licking face
  • biting at your face (misinterpreted by others)
  • lifting lips "smile" (can be mis-interpreted as a snarl by strangers, is also an appeasement behavior)
  • barking (on cue) Service dogs can be asked to be removed from a public place if they are disruptive. (Avoid teaching barking as an alert behavior)
  • digging
  • ringing bells to go out to potty
  • scratching the door to go out (wooden doors get damaged in public places)
  • nose nudge of hand (can easily become a demand to pet behavior when you are distracted especially if you absently stroke the dog's head)

Save sniffing for medical alerts until later as well. Sniffing comes naturally to dogs and scents do not need to be "imprinted" at a young age for the dogs to be successful medical scent detectors (diabetic alerts, seizure alerts etc).

Great behaviors you want to start with instead are:

  • eye contact
  • four on the floor
  • sit
  • nose target
  • bringing things to you
  • dropping objects
  • following you (loose leash walking off leash)
  • adding duration to all wanted behaviors

Check out our Foundations Skills Classes for guidance on how to start teaching the basic skills a service dog will need. 

Published in Unwanted Behaviors
Monday, 09 September 2019 08:25

Teaching Your Dog To Stay in Position While Moving

Ever wonder how good trainers can teach their dog to walk nicely on leash without any correction tools? No matter if you are teaching your dog to heel or loose leash walk beside you, your wheelchair, walkers or crutches, the basis of the behaviour is the same! 

In order to help your dog understand where you want her to be, the key is to heavily reinforce her in that position in many, many situations so she gets a picture in her head of where she is in relation to you. Try These Tips:

Start Off Leash 
Surprised? Yes, by training your dog when she is free, she solves the puzzle of finding the desired position herself, with no help from you. This uses her brain rather than teaching her to rely on the leash.The leash should only be used as an emergency connection. The bonus is that you avoid developing bad habits of using the leash to guide your dog. You want her to understand where she needs to be without your help. This avoids having to correct her for positions you don't want. 

Have a Clear Picture of Where You Want Your Dog To Be 
This is your criterion. You will be rewarding her whenever she stays within that target position. Where is her nose in relation to your leg or the wheelchair? Exactly how far away will she be from your legs or the chair? Or perhaps it's easier to see where her shoulders are in relation to your knee or chair. Whatever way you can make it easy to measure it, use it. 

Heavily Reinforce the Desired Position While Stationary 
Feed your dog 10 times in a row (one treat at a time) for staying there. Reward her 10 times in a row, being careful of treat placement. Present the treat directly in her mouth so she doesn't have to move to get it. 
Change your position by rotating one quarter of a turn (90 degrees) and repeat. 
If your dog can't find the position while you are staying still, she won't be able to find it when you are moving!

"Play" With The Position by Rewarding Your Dog for Finding the Position 

Take one step to the side and see if she can find the position again. Reward heavily.
Turn left. Reward heavily.
Turn right. Reward heavily.

Keep Sessions Short
Count out 10 treats and dismiss your dog for a one minute break. This gives her time to think about it and build new neutral pathways.  This is essential for new learning!
Do a few only a few sessions. Most dogs do well with 3 sessions (3 sets of 10 repetitions). Some can focus for 5 sets. The key is always end the sessions with your dog wanting to do more. If she walks away, you've done too much. 

Add The Leash As a Separate Training Criterion
Put on your dog's collar or flat non-restrictive walking harness and attach the leash. This adds difficulty for you, not the dog.
You must figure out how to hold the leash, or where and how to attach it. Perhaps a waist or shoulder attachment might be better for you.
You need to develop the ability to deliver the treat to the same place you did when the dog was not wearing the leash. 

Gradually Increase Distraction Levels 
This is the most common error people make and then they resort to training collars and harnesses since they don't know what else to do. The sad thing is many people never remove them once they start using them. Training collars and harnesses are supposed to be like training wheels on a bicycle, to help the dog learn the skill, then remove them as quickly as possible. 
In order to mimic off leash conditions in areas that are not safe to work your dog off leash, use the professional tip of standing on the end of the leash or attaching the leash to a waist band. This gives your dog freedom to choose to move and be able to find the position without being restricted or tempting you to control her with the leash. At the same time, it gives you the peace of mind knowing she will safe safe if an unexpected distraction comes along. 

Each Time You Add or Change Equipment, It Changes The Picture of You To Your Dog 
With each new piece of equipment, restart teaching your dog the position. 

If you want more details complete with step by step videos, join our foundation skills classes to learn several ways to teach your dog the desired position, and loose leash walking classes to learn how to apply them in motion in different situations like stairs and locations or take our loose leash walking class specifically for wheelchairs. We offer classes for other skills as well! 

Published in Dog Basic Skills
While the study was done specifically for seeing eye dogs, the finding applies to handlers with mobility/brace dogs.  This study which suggests rigid harnesses put more physical stress on a dog's body than flexible harnesses, especially on the lower right side of the chest.

One would think which side gets more pressure would vary depending on which side is the handler's dominant side and which side of the handler the dog is on. Our dog's physical health and safety is worth looking into.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140102112237.htm
 
Published in Equipment
Thursday, 25 July 2019 12:45

Will a Golden Doodle Be Suitable for Me?

Many people consider getting a Golden Doodle or other poodle mix. I recently discovered a great book approved by the Gold Doodle Association of North America. It is a fantastic book that provides a great overview of Golden Doodles! I recommend reading it BEFORE you line up a breeder or put a deposit down on a puppy.
 
It is clear that Golden Doodles and other poodle mixes are mixed breed dogs. They are not recognized as a "breed" by any organization. 
Any other breed mixed in can be called a Golden Doodle. 
They explain the F1, F2b etc.
Buying from a responsible breeder is key to getting the health, temperament and activity level that will best suit your lifestyle.
Check out breeders who are members or who follow the GANA code of ethics for breeding. They must do specific health tests on each parent. The parent dogs must be 2 years of age and not be bred after 7 years of age. 

That there are four coat types: flat, straight, wavy and curled.
Straight and Wavy are the most desirable. Flat are the same as Golden retrievers (shedding) and curly is like poodle but often heavier (and requires more work to maintain and mat often if not brushed out daily).

There are different sizes. They have different temperaments due to different sizes of poodles being used as the parent breed. (Standard, moyen, toy and mini)

There is no such thing as a truly hypoallergenic dog. Hypo means "low" allergies, not "no" allergies.
People can be allergic to the proteins in the saliva, urine and/or on the dander of dogs.

There is a new test that can be done for the gene for an incorrect coat type (which is recessive). If breeders know if their dogs carry it they can breed accordingly to improve the probability of getting more of the desired non-shedding coats.

Doodles should not be washed any more often than once a month or the dog's skin may dry out and it triggers skin issues.

They are prone to many diseases common to both breeds, most of which can be tested for:

  • progressive retinal atrophy
  • hereditary cataracts
  • glaucoma
  • heart problems
  • Addison's Disease
  • hip dysplasia
  • elbow dysplasia
  • eyes
  • von Willebrands disease (blood doesn't clot properly)
  • in the minis: luxating patellas
  • diabetes
  • cancer
  • hypothyroid
  • seizures
  • bloat
  • allergies


Puppies should not go to their new homes until at least 8 weeks of age (This is written in state laws in most states).

Golden Doodles may vary in the amount of energy/drive and exercise they need depending on what lines the parent breeds are from. Generally, lines from hunting/sport may have more energy. Conformation/show lines may have less. (English lines may have lower energy needs than American sport lines.)

That positive reinforcement is best for training a doodle.

The book: (also available on Kindle as an e-book)
The GoldenDoodle Handbook Linda Whitwam 2016

GANA Member Breeders

There is also a Labradoodle club but the breeders ethics is optional to membership so do your due diligence when talking with the breeder to make sure to see the results of the health tests. Note that the temperament of the Labradoodle is different than a Goldendoodle due to the parent breeds being different breeds.

Note: They recommend that the breeders use the Volhard Puppy Aptitude test. Many research papers have found that such tests are not a predictor of the future temperament or personality of a dog but instead more of a reflection of what the breeder has already done with the individual pup.

Some breeders also will have the pups spayed or neutered prior to going home with their families. Others will ask for proof of spay or neuter at one year of age. If you plan to use the dog as a your service dog, males should be kept intact until at least one year or age and female s 18 mos. This is to prevent the full normal bone development to occur before the hormones are removed. Removing the hormones (especially testosterone in males) can result in longer thinner bone structure, increased risk of cancer and hypothyroid diseases etc. See our other blog posts on this. Extensive research has been done on both Golden Retrievers and German Shepherds on the juvenile spay or neuter topic.