I was recently asked how a person would go about finding a trainer that will help them to train their own service or assistance dog. Here is my answer.
 
The first assumption is that the trainer needs to be an experienced service dog trainer. While this is helpful, this is not necessarily true. The most important part of a service dog is that the dog can pass the public access test. Here's another link: IAADP 

This means the dog must behave appropriately (calmly, no barking etc) in public, be able to perform common cues (sit, down, wait, leave it etc) and not be fearful or aggressive towards people, animals and the wide array of situations s/he will be faced with when assisting their handler in public. This is the hardest (and often the longest) part of the training so choose a trainer that is going to set you and your dog up to succeed and you will look forward to working with them in the long-term. If they would like to talk to me about the process, learn about laws etc, have them book a consult with me to ask all their questions. You can find another trainer online who specializes in training the tasks once your dog is well on his way to being able to do public access or check out the task classes we offer.
 
1. Start by looking for a trainer that fits your personal training philosophy for both you and your dog. You will be working with this person or company for the next 2 years or more, so choose one who you get along with. Take a set of 4 classes with them before you commit to big amounts up front. That gives you both time to see if you get along. Consider both in-person and online trainers. If you live rurally, going to weekly classes may not be possible. You may live where you can't find a trainer you like. Online classes might be the best for you and your dog so you can learn the skills before you go to class and use it to reteach the behaviors in the presence of higher level distractions (other people and dogs).

a) Ask around (friends with dogs, dog clubs, veterinarian etc). Check the internet for trainers near you.
There are several directories to help:

Regional Training Associations such as:

Vancouver Island Animal Training Assoc (VIATA) in BC

I
nternational Training Organizations
CPDT-KA

Choosing a trainer that uses positive reinforcement allows you to build a strong bond and create a confident and eager worker willing to take risks during learning. A trainer who understands how to correctly apply the 'quadrants and principles of operant conditioning' will help to ensure they understand how to break behaviors into small enough steps so your dog will be successful at each step. Dogs that get frustrated or who are punished (corrected) typically shut down and do not offer the creative and intelligent behavior choices a service dog will need to offer during his/her career. Look for an "About" page on their website. It should outline their training philosophy and techniques, maybe even mentors. 
 
Do be aware the term "positive" is applied in many ways, so just because a trainer calls themselves "positive" does not mean you will get one that uses primarily reinforcement-based training. "Balanced" trainers use a combination of both positive reinforcement and correction-based approaches (positive punishment). Dominance-based trainers tend to use force, physical manipulation and intimidation (such as invasion of the dog's personal space) to get behaviors, much emphasis is placed on verbal praise, and the use of food or toys is rare.
 
b) Since you are the other half of the service dog team, the trainer will need to be able to anticipate and accommodate your needs as well. How do they interact with you personally? Are you comfortable with them? What training have they done to learn how to train people? TAG teach (Teaching with Acoustic Guidance) is a good certification to have. Training as a teacher is handy. Training in ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) is a bonus as is a person with a Master's degree in Behavioral Psychology. Anyone that has worked with children or people with special needs or disabilities (and enjoyed it) may be a good choice as they understand how to adapt their training to your needs. What teaching experience have they had?  Choose someone that can provide structure, is organized, and can keep you on track since the process can take up to 18 months or more. 
 
2. Next, look at their dog training credentials. Is the trainer a current member of any recognized training associations? Do your research on the internet and find out the methods endorsed by these organizations.
Have they taken training or been certified by a recognized organization? Are they a tester or instructor for any? Which ones? Do they participate in regular (at least annual) professional development? (That is, keeping current on new ways to teach both you and the dog?) It might be in-person workshops or seminars, could be on-line learning or even purchasing books and DVD's, reading magazines etc. Are they a leader in their field and teach others?
 
3. Do they have an area of specialty? This will be one or two areas they have a greater knowledge of due to either a special interest or more experience (might be puppies, fearful dogs, aggressive dogs, working with children, service dogs, etc). Trainers that list many "specialities" are likely using them as keywords on their site to be found by search engines. They need not have a specialty for a specific type of service dogs as the foundation for all of them are the same. You can work with another trainer who has expertise in your specific disability when training the specific tasks you need. That can start down the road once your dog is comfortable working in public. Most tasks are comparatively easy to teach. The hard part if helping the dog learn to gneralize them (perfrom them in many different locations).
 
4. When you have narrowed your list to 2 or 3 possible trainers, ask them some questions. Talk to them in person, on the phone, or via video chat. E-mailing is usually too time-consuming. Make an appointment to ensure they have time to talk to you. Explain that you are doing research to find a suitable trainer to help you train you and your service dog for the behaviors in the Public Access Test.
 
a) Ask them who handles the dog. If at any time does someone other than you (dog's partner) handle the dog? In what situations? Are you comfortable with that?

b) What type of training equipment do they use (collars, harness, food, objects, people etc.) 
Some collars use force and punishment (prong, choke, e-collar) while others are designed to avoid that (head collars, front clip harnesses) but still give you more control over the dog's behavior. The use of a non-restrictive body harnesses is preferred. Head halters need to be specifically conditioned on the dog and they train you to use them properly, avoiding jerking or lifting in their use. A flat collar is used for tags. R+ trainers will not use choke chains, prong collars, electronic (shock) collars or harnesses that tighten on the dog like some front clip harnesses. Also watch how they use the tools. A leash can be used aversively by popping or jerking, or can be used as an emergency back-up only. The latter is what you want to aim for.

c) Where do they train with you? At your home? Their facility? Public places later on? 
 
d) If a dog doesn't do what they want, how do they respond? For example, if they ask the dog to sit and he doesn't. Answers will vary from 'make him', 'push his butt down', to 'start with where the dog is at (assess for understanding, distractions, stress level etc) and train from there'. The second answer is preferred.)
 
e) Can they list 5 calming signals given by dogs in a stressful situation? If they don't know what signals a dog uses to communicate stress (look away, whale eye, yawning, lip licks, sniffing, avoidance etc), this is not a good sign as they probably also don't understand thresholds.
 
f) Can they tell you when the various fear periods are in a dog's development? These will affect performance during training, especially during adolescence. (fear periods are 8-11 weeks, 4 to 8 months, 6 to 14 months)
 
g) Do they do an assessment of the abilities of you and your dog? It might a verbal or a practical or both.
 
h) Do they offer semi-private or private lessons if needed?

i) How do they deal with aggression and fear? Listen for methods to reveal their knowledge level as much as a general approach. Methods such as forcing a dog to endure something it is afraid of (called flooding) or correcting the dog for growling or barking (called positive punishment) etc is now recognized as being damaging to both the dog and the relationship. Adding distance between the trigger until the dog stops reacting and using food or play to change how the dog feels are accepted ways to deal with fear or aggression.

j) What teaching methods do they use to help you learn how to teach your dog? Verbal explanations, visual info (posters etc), demonstrations with their own dog, demo with your dog, mirrors, video recording of training sessions, written logs and /or journals, step by step videos, reading assignments, handouts? Is it okay if you write things down?

k) As they explain what they do, listen very closely to the language they use. "The dog MUST Do...", "We use only praise", "You push the dog's bum down",  "The dog is being dominant" or "Your dog is part of your pack" rings alarm bells in a handler looking for a positive reinforcement approach. A trainer who recognizes that a dog (and their human) always has a choice in the behaviors they do during learning is one who may understand how a dog learns. One of those choices is to say "No." Words like "luring", "capturing" and "shaping" are good ways to get behavior.
 
l) What will they do if your dog develops fears or aggression? What setups they use to retrain this? Do they use controlled situations (lots of distance, or visual barriers, use fake dogs or dolls for children (called decoys) to start the dog well below fear threshold. Do they use muzzles if necessary?

m) Can they tell you what under threshold, counter conditioning, systematic desensitization, Behavioral Adjustment Training (BAT), Look at That (LAT) mean? 

n) Ask them names of authors and other dog trainers they emulate. Research them to see how positive they are. Some names (in no particular order): Paul Owens, Ian Dunbar, Jean Donaldson, Karen Pryor, Patricia McConnell, Denise Fenzi, Grisha Stewart, Kathy Sdao, Nando Brown, Coppinger's, Steve White, Jesus Rosales-Ruiz, Emma Parsons, Sue Ailsby, Pamela Dennison, Victoria Stillwell, Leslie McDevitt, Silvia Trkman, Emily Larlham, Eva Bertilsson, Melissa Alexander, Steve Dale.

o) How knowledgeable/open are they to using additional approaches such as Tellington Touch (TTouch), body wraps, massage, recorded sounds, flower essences, etc.

p) Ask what they believe the social structure of dogs is. The most current research indicates dogs have a very loose social structure based on avoidance of confrontation and maintaining social peace. They DO NOT live in a dominance hierarchy, nor in packs. The most recent understanding of dominance is that it occurs in specific situations between two dogs over a single resource. It is not a personality trait. Typically trainers who believe in social hierarchies will also use force and correction during training. Research also indicates the use of both positive reinforcement and correction/positive punishment together is very confusing to dogs and results in less learning.
 
5. Go back and review the info you have gathered about each trainer. Which might be a good fit for you? Find out by watching classes at different levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced) to see what both dogs and handlers can do). The trainer should allow you to watch for free to help you decide if you like their teaching approach to dogs and people. Ensure that the trainer you watch is the one you will be working with. Take notes so you can compare them later. Record things you like as well as concerns you have. The trainer should be able to address to your satisfaction any concerns that may affect your service team's experience. Note things like, do they talk with each person? Can s/he recognize that a student is having trouble and help them to be successful in that lesson? Are the lessons structured for a group or individuals? Did the trainer do a demonstration with a dog first? Did the trainer use visuals or props? Did she talk the class through each step?
 
6. While at the class, evaluate their training location for your needs. Look for wheelchair accessible washrooms, ramps, acoustics, temperature, lighting, windows etc.  What specific things will you need that aren't there? Is the trainer willing to make alterations? Will the facility work long-term for you and your dog?  Think about the colder seasons too.

7. How big are the classes? Smaller is better. Classes of 4-6 dogs are ideal to start. Larger can be chaotic, even if there is more than one instructor. If they have 12 or more dogs in a large space, even with a second trainer, it probably isn't the class for you as you won't get enough personal interaction with the trainers and it is harder to see and hear and understand in larger classes with the instructor standing far away especially with poor acoustics. If this is the only option, start with private classes so you and your dog already know the behaviors before taking group classes. That way, you can work on using the class to add distractions, rather than having them work against you while learning new behaviors.
 
8. Get references and ask previous clients questions about the training process, effectiveness of the trainer, ability to adapt training to the person or family's special needs etc.
 
9. Use all of what you found and how you feel about the trainer to decide if s/he is a good match for you and your dog.
 
10. Book several classes and see how they go. Re-evaluate after the sessions are over. What progress did you and your dog make? How did you feel about the sessions?  Can you work with this trainer in the long run?
 
11. Keep your research records as you may need one trainer to help with the basics, another to help with the specific service tasks and still another to help as specific challenges crop up. If you learn to trust them, this gives you a support system to draw from.
 
Recently, I had an email question that I thought would be helpful for others to read that answer to. 

"I am writing to inquire it be ideal to train two young pups as service dogs together. There are two members of my family who could each benefit one. The breeder/trainer/rescue involved suggested we wait to get a second pup, rather than taking two home at once."
I am in agreement with the breeder/trainer/rescue.
Firstly, two pups together can be a crazy-making situation! With any pup, the socialization with other people, dogs and environments is key. Toting two growing pups and their equipment around is more than double the workload of one, especially if there is only one person able to do the training! If one or both of you have disabilities, that adds too much on top of the already challenging situation you are dealing with. 

Secondly, having two pups close together in age can create problems with bonding issues with their people unless there is a significant effort to train separately. Typically it’s called “littermate syndrome” where they get so bonded that the humans get squeezed out of the equation. Separation anxiety from the other dog, as well as not being able to train without the other dog present, or relying on the other dog for guidance are all common issues seen. I myself always have gotten dogs that were about 14-18 mos apart. By that time the older dog has a strong bond with their person or people and the pup sees that and usually chooses to bond with the other person. It also helps you to choose a temperament that suits the first dog so they get along. For example, Jessie was very careful about the dogs she plays with and Lucy is perfect in that she always gives Jessie the space and time she needs and goes out of her way to avoid conflict. 

Thirdly, If you or your family member get sick or are unable to continue the socialization during critical periods or can't afford to hire someone else to continue the process, then you have only one dog to do catch up with, not two. 

There are other benefits as well. Once you have learned to train the first dog, training the second one comes easier and the handler/family makes fewer mistakes so general training tends to go faster. Of course, each dog has their own challenges. You learn how to create and what daily structure/environment works for all of you. Puppies tend to fit into those quickly when there are older dogs in the house.The older dog often models the behaviors you want the puppy to do as well (assuming he doesn’t have too many unwanted behaviors. LOL!)

So there are many valid reasons to wait to get the second service dog candidate pup!

A local service dog training organization has calculated the value of a certified service dog at CDN$80,000. Another in The US states US$55,000.  That is more than the value of most people's vehicles! 

Can you imagine a person letting their child run up to and jump in your car and demand a ride? You would be pretty upset if they did and probably tell the child off, or at the very least demand that the parent remove the child.

That is a pretty good analogy of what is happening when a child asks to pet a service dog. Unlike the car analogy, the result might be more disastrous than just delaying the driver a few minutes. The child is interfering with the dog's ability to medically assist the handler. That is the dog's job. All it takes is a momentary distraction for the dog to miss a medical alert, not be available to support their handler or not be there to block the person from moving forward.
 

That is why there are laws that protect service dogs from being interfered with by the public.

What A Member of the Public Can Do:
1. Talk to and look at the handler, not the dog. It's great to be friendly to people with disabilities!

2. Start up a conversation with them. Let them know you think their dog is pretty or quiet or doing a good job. Or that the weather has been nice recently.
They may be in a hurry or may have already greeted several other people that day so be ready for them to just thank you and move away. 

3. Look at the handler while you ask if you can interact with the dog. Be prepared for them to say "No". They may also ask if you can help them train their dog by interacting with the dog in a specific way. It is good to practice with your child that the handler might say no and you need to keep moving or smile and look away.

The service dog may be in training and greeting you, your child or your dog at that moment may set the dog back in that training. Ensure your child stays out of the dog's space and keeps his hands at his side. If you have a dog with you, keep your dog close to you on leash and well out of contact range of the service dog team if he is showing too much interest in the service dog. 

4. Keep your own opinions about the level of disability of the handler. Many disabilities are invisible. Examples of invisible disabilities are seizures, diabetes, anaphylactic allergies, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and anxiety.  

5. If you see that a service dog is causing a disturbance in public, move away and notify the manager of the store. Let them deal with it. They should ask the handler to control the dog. If after being given a chance to do so and they are not able to or make no attempt to control the service dog, then the manager can ask them to remove the dog. Members of the public cannot ask a service dog to leave. That would be considered interference with a service dog team.

Did you know that in BC, Canada there is up to a $3000 fine for anyone interfering with a service dog team? Or that a record and jail time is possible for doing so? There are similar laws all over the world. Please respect a service dog team!

Click Here to see Part B

C. Not Having a Support System for Themselves to Help Meet the Dog's Daily Needs and Training 

A key point is that any person who is helping you with your service dog must have the same approach to training that you do, or at least agree to handle your dog in the same way you do. If for example, you use positive reinforcement, and a helper handles your dog in a stress environment, they will not have the skills that you do and may set your dog way back in training by using methods or tools that you have not agreed to. This applies to groomers, dog walkers, veterinarians, the handlers caregivers and any other people involved in your dog's care. It is best to have more people on your team since at times, not all of them will be available. Always have a back-up!

You will need: 
1. Someone to make sure the dog's daily needs are met if you are not able to do this or become incapacitated for more than a day or so: feeding, pottying, exercise, play, social etc. This may cost extra money. 
2. Someone who will be a training helper and create distractions while proofing training. 
3. Transportation provider to move you and the dog where you need to go both for daily living and for training purposes.
4. People you can borrow training props form or who can make you training props. 
5. Veterinarian (your dog's health care provider)
6. Groomer (if needed)
7. Your mental and physical health care providers (who are they and what role will they play?)

Did you make any of these mistakes? It's time to fix them!

Click here to see Part A

 

Click Here to See Part A

B. Choosing the Wrong Dog for the Job

Owner-trainers need to start out with a dog with the most solid temperament and health that they can find. Starting with anything less decreases their chance of success. 
1. Choose a dog with a known genetic and behavioral history. Find a quality breeder for a pup or for an adult dog that has been returned to a breeder or a retired conformation dog the breeder is looking to retire.
Behavior issues related to temperament are the most common reason a dog is removed from training for public access. Look for a dog with friendly, biddable and bombproof parents. Look for a dog that was raised in a home environment with attention to socialization with people of all ages and other friendly known dogs. Environmental enrichment for the puppies to grow the little brains before you start working with them. Health tests on the parents. 
2. Health issues. When adopting an adult dog, have that dog screened for health issues common to the breed at 2 years of age. That way there won't be surprises down the road where you have to retire the dog early. If you are getting a pup, make sure the parents have been screened and passed for the same health tests by recognized bodies, not just any veterinarian taking a passing look at the dog. 
3. It can take screening as many as 400 shelter or rescue dogs to find one that has suitable health and temperament for a service dog. These usually have an unknown gestation and health history. Avoid adding a rehabilitation project to your list of jobs and costs. 
4. Be especially careful to choose an emotionally sound dog that is emotionally resilient or physically insensitive if you are training your dog for anxiety or PTSD. For these, it is recommended to start with a dog that is at least 18 mos of age so you can see the dog's temperament. 
Alternatively, consider asking a friend or family to raise a puppy to that age for you. Pups exposed at a young age to people with anxiety tend to either become supersensitized or learn to ignore the anxiety or PTSD unless (and sometimes even if) they have a bombproof temperament. Herding breeds tend towards sound sensitivity. That's why the three most common assistance dog breeds are golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers and standard poodles. As a breed, they tend to be emotionally and sound insensitive and physically robust and resilient. They are also the most commonly available breeds so you have the best chance to find Lgood example of the breed.

Click here to see Part C after Nov 26, 2017